Camera obscura

Dark, closed optical device which allows to view the projection of an exterior image inside the camera. Its origin could date back to the 4th century B.C. in Aristotle’s time, when it was used to observe astronomical phenomena. But it was not until the 15th century that it was reinvented by Leonardo da Vinci to reproduce reality with extraordinary precision from images in its interior. Its development  led to photography and eventually to movie-making. See Vermeer Camera Obscura

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Camera obscura

Johann Zahn’s optic camera with drawer and “reflex visor” device, 1685.